A body that is hung at night is a "Curse of God" - Tetoh.com (2023)

The body of a criminal executed is hanging, but must be buried on the same day.

Deuteronomy 21 requires that the body of a criminal executed be displayed according to his exposure[1]Execution, apparently as a kind of public demonstration of what happens to these criminals:[2]

דברים כא:כב וְכִי יִהְיֶה בְאִישׁ חֵטְא מִשְׁפַּט מָוֶת וְהוּמָת וְתָלִיתָ אֹתוֹ עַל עֵץ.
Deut 21:22When a man is guilty of a capital crowd and kills him and (or "he" avoids it) in a tree.[3]
A body that is hung at night is a "Curse of God" - Tetoh.com (1)

To be clear, the execution here does not depend: the person is not dead by asphyxiation or to break the neck with a rope. In change, this is a description of what should be done with the body after execution. The term "sludge"It is a possible translation of the biblical text; Embare is what we find in the old Middle East practices, as is reflected in the Assyrian, Egyptian and Persian texts and images.

However, the rabbi did not understand (m. Sanhedrin 6: 9, businessman ed.):

כיצד תולין אתו? משקעין את הקורה בארץ והעץ יוצא ממנה ומקיף שתי ידיו זו לזו ותולה אתו. רבי יוסה או[מר]: קורה מטה על הכותל ותולה בה כדרך שהטבחין תולין.
How do you hang up? They sink a beam on the floor, and a piece of wood takes the wood, wrap one hand around the other and hang.🇧🇷🇧🇷

Deuteronomy continues to point out that this inclination should take only a little time:

דברים כא:כג לֹא תָלִין נִבְלָתוֹ עַל הָעֵץ כִּי קָבוֹר תִּקְבְּרֶנּוּ בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי וְלֹא תְטַמֵּא אֶת אַדְמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְ־הוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה.
Dt 21:23You should not let your body stay on the tree at night, but you need to bury it on the same day. Because a suspended body is the curse of God: they will not contaminate the earth that God gives them.

We can see this law in history what Joshua does with the five kings of the southern southern, whom he captures:

יהושע י:כו וַיַּכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אַחֲרֵי כֵן וַיְמִיתֵם וַיִּתְלֵם עַל חֲמִשָּׁה עֵצִים וַיִּהְיוּ תְּלוּיִם עַל הָעֵצִים עַד הָעָרֶב. י:כז וַיְהִי לְעֵת בּוֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ צִוָּה יְהוֹשֻׁעַ וַיֹּרִידוּם מֵעַל הָעֵצִים וַיַּשְׁלִכֻם אֶל הַמְּעָרָה...
Josh 10:26Then Joshua let her kill and [her bodies] hanged (or "stacked") in five bets and remained hung on the bets until night (or "paved).10:27At sunset Joshua ordered them to leave the pole and play in the cave ...[4]

Deuteronomy requires the requirement to bury a body,[5]And he adds that exposure of a body is a problem. So, why save the person's body and what that means קִלְלַת ִ ִ ִ ִ ָּ ָּל תָּל ech is real, that I intentionally translated awkwardly: "A body of hungerIs it the curse of God "?

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Jewish interpreters proposed several options; so we will see eight.

1) LXX, Paul: a curseVonGod in the body

Like the phrase in English "The Curse of God", the Hebrew phrase ל קללת קלת קללת קלת קלת קלת קללת קלת orrop.It is ambiguous; it can mean "a curseoneGod "or" a curseVonBom."[6]After the last understanding of the syntax, the verse says that leaving a hanging man would cause a curse to God.

The SPTUAGIAN translation in septuaginta understands that the body itself is crazy, arbol, marine marine marine by God "(ὅjuan is a magnificent translation. A place of sepuagint, hizo use -Verweding dies as teil as teils eerklten weight of the theologist.Mitzvot) And only the redemption of the effects of the crucifixion of Jesus:

Christ rescued us from the curse of the law after becoming a curse to us because it is written, "Damn everyone who hangs in a tree" (Galatia 3:13).[7]

In other words, allowing himself to crucify himself, Jesus gave God God for all other people to protect humanity. PAUL interprets "tree" as a "cross" and "hang" as a "crucifixion."[8]From a syntactic point of view, Paul comes to septuagint the curse on the backVonBom.

As expected, this translation remains standard in Christian circles. Latin translation, which is generated by the Father of the Jerome Church (347-420 v. That makes it out, do that that made the energy the energy that makes itthe energy the verse,Because it is cursed by God, is that it is hung on the tree, "Because God is cursed who hangs in a tree." The classic translation in English, the King James version, translates the phrase similarly "because those who are hanging is translated academic:" Because someone who hangs into a tree is under the treeGod's curse ".

2) IBN EZRA, Nahmanides: A Curse of God on Earth

In the Middle Ages, some Jewish commentators accepted this understanding of syntax, although, of course, they do not associate it with Jesus and the crucifixion or even the body. In change, they saw a body as the cause of God curse of the curse of the Earth's curseFor example, Rabbi Abraham Ibn Ezra (1089-1167) writes:

ועל דרך הפשט: כי אלהים פועל, והקללה תבוא לכל מקום קרוב מהתלוי.
LosDumbbellThe explanation is that God is the source of the curse that will find all the nearby places[9]Carrasco.

Nahmanides (Ramban, Rabbi Moses ben Nahman; 1194–1270), using the same understanding of the syntax, explicitly connects the clause כי קללת אלוהים תלוי to the next clause, ולא תטמא את אדמתך—you shall not defile the land:

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ועל דרך הפשט יאמר: כי יהיה באיש חטא גדול שראוי להמיתו עליו, ולתלותו על עץ לגודל חטאו, אף על פי כן לא תלין נבלתו על העץ, כי הארור מכל האדם והמקולל בהם הוא התלוי, אין בכל המיתות מיתה מנוולת ובזויה כמוה. ואין ראוי שנטמא הארץ ותהיה קללת האלהים בארץ הקדושה.
butDumbbellThe explanation is: even if a person has committed such a cruel crime that is worth it and is hung on a tree due to the severity of his crime, he does not let his body hang on a tree, for someone who is who is who is who is whowho is the one who is more hanged and humiliating than anyone else. It is a method of killing a person is so humiliating and shameful. I would be shameful to make our sacred country unclean, bringing God's curse.

After the interpretation of local manages in theDumbbellIt is concerned with God's curse is to protect the state from Israel, not to protect the dignity of earth culture and therefore interrupt its performance. "[10]

3) Mix: Who is hanging? A person who cursed God

The most common understanding of syntax in the Jewish sources is that the curse is not of God, but by GodVonHowever, God is discussed how a hunger body is connected to a curse of God.

כלומר מפני מה זה תלוי? מפני שקילל את השם ונמצא שם שמים מתחלל.
That means why the body hangs that person? Because he cursed God and profaned the name of heaven.

En esta interpretación, כִּי קִלְלַת אֱלֹהִים תָּלוּי debe traducir "ahorcado es la persona que me dijo a dios" .esto, sin embargo, sem pude ser elDumbbellMeaning of the expression, since this explanation in the verse follows the instructionsnoHang your body.

Therefore, the expression should give a reason to limit the duration of hanging, not a reason to hang.[11]However, this homiletical reading is one of the basic concepts of acceptance in the rabbinic literature that only a certain subgroup of sinners is posthumously punished when the public hangs in his body.[12]

4) Bekhor Shor: I don't remember people about God's curse

Rabin Joseph Bekhore NoiseºCentury) After the assumption of the mischná that the hanged person cursed God, it sees this as the reason why the body cannot be hung:

אני אומר לך לא תלין שום נתלה, שמא יאמרו הרואים: זה מגדף היה, והרים יד במלך, וזהו גנאי למלך. משל לאדם שבא וסטר את המלך על פניו ותלש שערו וזקנו. אף על פי שתלאו המלך, גנאי הוא למלך שיפרסמו ויאמרו שזה אדם סטר המלך
I [God] say, "Don't let anyone hang so that viewers do not say," This man was a blasphemousness; He rebelled against God. "This public memory of the fact that the damn God cursed] leads to God's misfortune.A parable: A man hit the king on his face and took his hair out of his head and bear. Although the king hanged him, König tends to be without news of crime and people [who turned the body appeared]: "This man is whobeaten the king. "[13]

In other words, it is counterproductive to hang a person because of the crime of MIS "in the latter case, he leads to God's greater misfortune and resembles the people who can curse God.[14]

5) R. Meir: To see the body, the god hurt

Mishna (Sanhedrin 6:10) records an interpretation that the rabbi meir is attributed (2)Dakota del NorteCentury), which implies that God is violated when seeing the hanging body:

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אמר ר' מאיר: בזמן שאדם מצטער שכינה מה הלשון אומרת: "קלעיני מראשי קלעיני מזרועי?"
R. Meir said, “If a person suffers, what does God say?start; My arm isstart. "

The word קלדעיי was or קללי or קליי, dependent on the text, is the key to a game of "malleitation" ק.[fifteen](9th century) who interpreted him as echo, my misfortune. The phrase would be something like, "My head is dishonorable; my members are dishonorable."

Anyway, the anthropomorphic language means that God suffers when a person, even a bad person, suffers or shame.

6) R. Meir again: When a person is hanging, people curse God

Another interpretation that is also attributed to Rabbi Meir, which can be seen in the advice and in the Talmud Babylon (Sanhedrin 46b), offers a theologically brave explanation:

תניא א"ר מאיר משל למה הדבר דומה? לשני אחין תומין שהיו בעיר אחת, אחד מינהו למלך ואחד יצא לליסטיא. צוה המלך ותלאוהו. כל הרואה אותו אומר: המלך תלוי! צוה המלך והורידוהו.[sixteen]
It was taught: Rabbi Meir offered the following parable: What can this case be compared? A story about two twin brothers who lived in the same city. It became king; the other became a road. The king commanded that (he (he (He () ordered the road). All the spectators who saw it said, "Look, the king was hanging!" Then the king commanded him (his brother hang) was shot down.[17]

RAIT (R. SH LOMO YITZHAK I, 1040-1105) EXP LI CHAO A[18]that the two twin brothers are God and the people created in the image of God.[19]Killing a person or mutilating a body that was created according to God's image is an affront to God.

Inspired by the parable of Rabbi Meir, Elie Wiesel (1928–2016) used it in a moving passage in his book.NightAfter the Nazis hung a young Jew and displayed his hanging body, a voice in the narrator says, "Where is he [= God]? Here he is, he stays here in this force."[20]

Our verse then assumes the same message as Genesis 9: 6:

בראשית ט:ו שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת הָאָדָם.
Gen 9: 6Anyone who becomes the blood of humans through humans will shed their blood;Because in your photo God made man.[21]

This explanation offers a stimulating message about respect for people, even for the worst criminals, and the order of clauses also works better: "Leave the curse of (or" it's an affront later ")[22]God. "This is the favorite translation of NJPS Tanakh:" Because a spit body is an affront to God. "

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7) Rashbam, Shadow: לו is ם in this verse, does not mean God

Rashbam (Rabbi Samuel Ben Meir; c. 1080 - c. 1160) sees the syntax the same as the previous interpretation. However, according to the ideaCamustoIn the Bible, she sometimes refers to judges instead of just God, in this verse you do not understand as a curse of God, but as a cursed judge.[23]A prohibition that understands that it appears in Exodus:

שמות כב:כז אֱלֹהִים לֹא תְקַלֵּל וְנָשִׂיא בְעַמְּךָ לֹא תָאֹר.
Ex 22:27NoCamustoHe still cursed a boss among her people.[24]

So Rashbam comments on our verse:

כשרואין בני אדם את התלוי רגילין לקלל את הדיינין או קרובים של הרוג או שאר בני אדם לפי שפעמים על עבירה מועטת הוא נהרג כמו מקושש, והקב"ה אמר [אלהים] לא תקלל, לפי שרגילין בני אדם לקללם
As a rule, when people, whether relatives of one person or another, hang one person, cursed the judges because sometimes a person is performed by a small violation, such as: b.The Wood Collector [on Saturday (number 15: 32–36)) God commanded us not to curse the judges, because people usually curse them.[25]

Shadal (Samuel David Luzzatto; 1800-1865) in the idea of rashbam that the honor of the court is questioned:

הריגת החוטא עושה רושם ברואים, וכל העם ישמעו וייראו ולא יזידון עוד אבל ההתאכזרות על הגוף המת אינו מועיל כלום, אבל הוא מזיק, ואם יונח הנהרג תלוי על העץ למאכל לעוף השמים, זה לא יועיל להרחיק את האדם מן העברה, רק יביא ברואיו הרגשת חמלה ורחמים, ויבאו לקלל את השופטים והמשפט האלהי. כן דעת רשב״ם והוא הנכון
A sinner impresses those who see him. So they say (Deut 19:20): "Others will hear and be afraid, and bad things will not do them again." But the cruel treatment of the body of the body of the body of the dead has nopurpose.The executed person] .The people then curse the judges and the divine judicial system. This is the explanation of Rashbam and is correct.

With this approach, God does not enter the scene. The point is that the cruel treatment of the body of a prisoner executed means that people suspect the entire judicial system.

8) Vilna Gaon: A Curse of God's Level

Show a final interpretation that is worthCamustoIt is not the one who condemns the object of the curse, but it acts as a superlative particle that describes a heavy variety:

כי קללת אלהים תלוי. אלהים הוא להפליג הדבר כמו הררי אל שלהבת יה וכן כאן פירושו בזיון גדול מופלג מאד והוא בזיון התליה כי קללה הוא לשון בזיון בכל מקום.[26]
A palavra ל Imaratalump ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם ם [a severidade da matéria].[27]] or [the word יה in the phrase] שלהבת יה (Song 8:6) i.e. a blazing fire[28]] In a similar way, here [ל ל ל echonero ם drinks The accident of the slopes is large and heavy. קלה means "misfortune" wherever it appears.

Like י zosp.And ל are not always divine names, but they can act as the superlative marker, here is what seems to be a divine name, the same function, and קללת ל ל -reccra means a difficult curse or a severe misfortune.[29]

A humanistic message

However, the sentence is interpreted, the law is clear: even the worst criminals gain a fast and decent funeral. Petically all interpretations see a humanistic message in the verse: this cruelty to someone else after death is against the values of values ofLog.

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